Rural U.S. libraries: serving populations and meeting challenges
This article looks at how rural libraries in the United States serve a variety of populations, including Native Americans, Latinos, farmers, migrant farm workers, and the poor. While a number of organizations and initiatives have focused on improving service in rural libraries, many of these institutions face difficulties related to funding and the hiring of qualified staff. Through a survey of rural librarians and those who support them, as well as a literature review, this article investigates both shortcomings and successes in recent U.S. rural library developments.
Rural libraries in the United States must contend with a number of obstacles while attempting to provide relevant services to the populations that they serve. One significant challenge involves recruiting degreed librarians who wish to work in remote areas. Also, taking on projects that might help to better serve those who live in rural areas can be onerous. These libraries often use their limited resources so that they can continue to operate at a very basic level, leaving little room for developing appropriate and effective services for various population groups. While current economic conditions have exacerbated the difficulties that many libraries across the U.S. face, rural libraries have struggled with major personnel and financial challenges for some time.
This article presents both survey results and a review of recent literature that cover key issues for rural libraries, with a focus on service to special populations. These populations include children, ethnic minorities, farmers, migrant farm workers, and the poor. In order to investigate current experiences and attitudes of librarians who work in rural areas and the organizations that support them, a survey with questions relating to computer training of staff and patrons, collaborative efforts with colleges and universities, recruitment of MLIS graduates, and service to special populations was sent to individuals involved with rural libraries. Responses to the survey are detailed in a section following the literature review.
Living conditions in rural areas often help to define the information needs of those who live there. For example, Furman (2005) indicates that there has been a pronounced shortage of jobs in these locations, due in part to the U.S. economic recession that occurred between 2001 and 2003 (Recession.org, 2008). Furman states, "rural areas experience more poverty and the negative effects of poverty, such as addiction, domestic violence, hunger, and unsafe housing" (para. 6). Furman believes that rural libraries have a responsibility to provide access to information that is relevant to users experiencing these poverty-related difficulties. Stevenson (2003) notes that libraries in remote areas can work to improve literacy skills among local populations, as rural residents who lack these skills face enormous challenges in today's technology-oriented job market.Defining Rural
The U.S. Census Bureau (2008) provides a definition of both urban and rural areas for its Census 2000. Urbanized Areas (UA) and Urban Clusters (UC) are designations that include either population densities in excess of 1,000 people per square mile, or surrounding areas where at least 500 people per square mile reside. Rural areas are essentially all areas that do not fit either the UA or UC definition. The Bureau also notes that counties and similar areas may be "partly classified as urban and partly classified as rural" (para. 6).
The ALA-APA Rural Library Staff Salary Survey, a document produced by the American Library Association Allied Professional Association (2007), includes a section where anonymous respondents answer the question, "How do you define rural?" Perhaps predictably, this question elicits a wide variety of responses. A public librarian in Alaska states, "A library is rural if it is isolated, regardless of whether it is part of a larger county system or in a small town" (p. 1). Another public librarian, located in Illinois, offers, "To me, a rural community has a population of less than 10,000. Over that, I consider a medium-sized library" (p. 1). Residing in Iowa, another public librarian responds, "Some say 25,000 or under, some say 10,000 or under, but I think the small or rural library has more to do with a feeling of connectedness to your community" (p. 2).
It should be noted that the respondents to the survey questions presented in this article have not formally declared the population totals of the areas that they work in. Several respondents work for libraries that serve populations of 10,000 or fewer. Many of the respondents direct county libraries or library systems that serve a number of small towns through branches. And a few librarians who responded to the questions are also involved with organizations that work to support rural libraries, making the population numbers that they work with somewhat ambiguous.
The following literature review considers writings that focus on service to a variety of rural populations, including the Amish, farmers, home-schooled children, Latinos, migrant farm workers, and Native Americans. In addition to the traditional library setting, bookmobile services are also examined. The majority of the writings cover issues related to public libraries. For the sake of currency, writings published in 2000 or later were sought.Rural Library Service to Ethnic Minorities
Referring to U.S. census data from 2000, Snyder (2004) points out that there had been a 44% rise in the number of U.S. residents born outside of the country over the previous decade. Slightly over one-half of this group are from Latin American countries, where Spanish is the primary language. Furman (2005) adds that rural locales have recently seen a rise in Latino populations. Snyder notes that today, when considering ways of serving minorities, libraries tend to focus on providing English and literacy instruction, programming that targets various ethnicities, and developing partnerships with outside organizations and agencies that offer assistance to these groups.
Snyder (2004) also considers the results of eight survey responses from rural libraries in Florida, Colorado, Wisconsin, and Kansas. The survey respondents provided details about how their libraries offer, market, and fund services to minority groups. The respondents also addressed difficulties faced in providing these services. Snyder concludes that low funding levels for services targeting immigrant groups, language barriers, minority patrons' frequent mistrust of organizations offering assistance, and local non-minority patrons who take issue with libraries that focus on services to minorities are among the problems facing these rural institutions.Tribal Libraries
Nappo (2007) asserts that Native Americans live predominantly in rural environments, and experience higher rates of poverty than the overall U.S. population. Remarkably, no libraries were established for this indigenous group until 1958. By this time, Native Americans had been mostly relegated to taking up residence on reservations, and the U.S. federal government firmly controlled how these reservations were operated. Following the advent of the American Indian Movement in the 1960s, tribal governments gained more authority over their own reservations, and a fair number of tribal libraries have since been established.
According to Patterson (2001), the federal government recognizes over 300 tribes within the contiguous United States; about one-half of these tribes operate libraries in some form. As for the importance of tribal libraries, Biggs (2001) provides some recent historical context:
The challenges of economic development, tribal capacity building, protection of land and resource rights, and numerous other issues of tribal sovereignty burgeoned in the wake of the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975, bringing home the fact that tribes needed libraries to provide them access to current, and often complex information in order to maintain sovereignty and preserve fading cultural traditions. (p. 1)
Patterson also notes that a number of tribal libraries work to preserve the languages of specific tribes, offering programs such as language immersion courses and storytelling to children using tribal dialects.
Sterling (2006) relates that tribal libraries often have problems finding staff of Native American origin that have been educated or trained in library work. Reporting data from a census of tribal libraries in California's Tierra Del Sol region, Biggs (2001) notes that only 38% of the participating 18 libraries employed paid staff, with none of the workers possessing an advanced library degree. Nappo (2007) points out that while tribal libraries have received some financial assistance from the federal government, "there needs to be better coordination between tribal leaders and the federal government to ensure that every eligible reservation can take full advantage of the basic grants" (p. 44).
Following an upturn in federal government support for Native Americans, the first U.S. tribal college was opened in 1968 (Nappo, 2007). Nappo explains that as more of these colleges were planned and built, "the tribal college and university libraries brought library services to the reservation for the first time" (p. 38). Tribal college and university libraries frequently take on multiple roles in the reservation setting, serving both the academic community and the local population.
The Native American Access to Technology Program (NAATP) is a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation project. According to Dorr and Akeroyd (2001), "the program aims to work with tribal leaders, librarians, and educators to preserve local culture and heritage and to provide opportunities for technology training through access to computers and the Internet" (para. 15). Gordon, Dorr, and Gordon (2003) indicate that a 1999 report issued by New Mexico State University found that only 14% of rural Native American residences had computer access, while a mere 8% had Internet access. The NAATP was created in order to bring increased computer and Internet resources to Native Americans residing in the Four Corners area of the U.S., where the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado all meet.Migrant Farm Workers
In an article titled "Serving the Invisible Population: Library Outreach for Migrant Farm Workers," Prock (2003) notes that there are approximately three to five million migrant farm workers currently residing in the U.S. According to the Migrant Farmworkers in the United States (Geneseo Migrant Center, n.d.) document, 81% of these workers are born outside of the U.S., and a similar number are native Spanish speakers. Roughly half of migrant farm workers make $7,500 or less in a year, and on average receive a mere $5.94 an hour for their labor (Prock, 2003). In addition to these difficulties, this population is also often exposed to dangerous farming equipment, pesticides, and harsh weather conditions (Prock, 2003). Fisher, Marcoux, Miller, Sanchez, and Cunningham (2004) note that migrant farm workers have "substantial information needs in thirteen areas: consumer affairs, education and literacy, employment, family planning, health, home and family, housing, the law, political process, recreation, transportation, and recreation welfare or social service programs" (para. 2).
Diaz (2005) recommends that libraries develop partnerships with agencies that reach out to migrant farm workers, including childcare, after-school, and legal aid programs, as well as churches, recreation centers, and labor organizations. Diaz also mentions that library programs involving both the workers and their children, such as storytelling hours, can motivate this group to visit these institutions more frequently. In addition, Diaz points out:
The children of farm workers are more likely than their parents to be American- born, so fears based on legal status in the U.S. may be minimized if a library card can be issued to a child rather than to his parent. (p. 13)
Fisher et al. (2004) elaborate further on the role of children within this population group, asserting that, unlike their parents, they attend school in the U.S., and are more likely to become proficient in English. This often makes the children of these workers the key suppliers of information within a given family.Farmers
Wiese (2001) points out that while there has been a downturn in the number of U.S. farms for many years, small farms (defined as operations that sell less than $50,000 worth of agricultural products annually) continue to do well. The information needs of small-scale farmers include "technical materials on growing and harvesting crops and raising livestock" (Wiese, 2001, p. 53), as well as literature covering effective ways of marketing and selling produce. Wiese suggests that rural librarians contact outside sources, such as their state's department of agriculture, for help with acquiring materials relevant for small-scale farmers.
Nason (2007) recommends that libraries counting farmers among their patrons find out what sorts of agriculture practices are used by this group, and provide relevant information in their collections. According to Nason, resources useful to farmers include materials on legislation that may assist them, regulations concerning land use, and information related to the needs of consumers who purchase their produce. Hodge and Tanner (2003) offer an example of how farmers in St. Johnsville, New York, expressed their dissatisfaction with local library services by opposing taxes that would potentially benefit their public library. The farmers were motivated to do so because they felt that their library was not providing them with relevant information.
In the article "Whitman County Farmers Reap Benefits of Library Services," Jones (2006) relates a more positive story about farmers and libraries. Branches of the Whitman County Library in Washington serve an area dominated by the farming industry, including St. John, a town of 530. Jones notes that the town voted to pass a $500,000, 15-year bond measure in 2005 that will result in the construction of a new building for the local library branch. Also, Clancy Pool, the St. John Branch manager, has created a unique service by placing books in grain elevators so that nearby workers can access them while on the job. Pool feels that the harvest workers who use the books are underserved, primarily because they often work 80-plus hours per week, leaving them with little time to visit the branch library.Bookmobiles
Dixon (2006) notes that one of the ways that bookmobiles are currently used is to provide service to special populations such as ethnic minorities, disabled persons, the elderly, and children. Edmiston (2004) reports that Amish populations in Ohio, as well as home-schooled children in Pennsylvania, have utilized bookmobiles. Dixon investigated bookmobile use in Alaska, where this service aims to "provide materials, especially books, to people who have difficulty obtaining materials from a stationary library due to geographic or physical barriers" (p. 24). Dixon acknowledges that due to a lack of centralized service areas and the cost of new vehicles, bookmobile services often face budget cuts. Dixon believes that key elements to bookmobile success include implementing relevant service approaches and getting local populations involved with bookmobile operations. Referring to successful Alaskan bookmobiles, Dixon notes, "In each instance, knowledge of local terrain and community habits enables volunteers and staff to successfully deliver books to users, even in the wilderness" (p. 37).
Edmiston (2004) points to statistics that indicate a total of 745 bookmobiles were operated in the U.S. in 2001, down from the 819 reported in 1995. Using survey data from 121 U.S. rural bookmobile service respondents, Meadows (2001) states than on average, one-third of these vehicles maintain three full-time employees (FTEs), one-third employ 2-2.5 FTEs, and one-third have 1-1.5 FTEs. The bookmobiles stop to provide service for 30 minutes on average, and do so at a variety of locations, including churches, post offices, schools, grocery stores, and private homes. Overall, individual bookmobiles circulate 40,000-49,000 items annually. This type of service is still hampered by a lack of technological resources, as only 14% of respondents reported having Internet connections. Additionally, a mere 16% of the bookmobiles indicated that they possess computers to assist with transaction records.
Nicholson (2005) confirms that many remote U.S. areas have difficulties with providing access to high speed Internet, due to the high prices that service providers can demand when competing against a smaller number of companies. New York State's Four County Library System offers Adirondack and Catskill mountain residents Internet access via their "cybermobile," which serves patrons who have few, if any, service provider choices. Additionally, the cybermobile has checked out more items to patrons than most of the stationary libraries in the counties it operates in. The Four County Library System's outreach and electronic services manager, Steve Bachman, notes, "The Cybermobile gives us an effective way to reach out to unserved residents who are unemployed, underemployed, or otherwise at a disadvantage" (Golaszewski, n.d., para. 11).
Boyce and Boyce (2000) offer details about the Louisiana-based "mobile electronic library," a small bookmobile operated by the Beauregard Parish Library. This bookmobile is a component of a program called ROADS (Rural Outreach and Delivery System), which operates small, technology-oriented branches and kiosks in several locations, including a museum and a hospital. Offering computer and Internet services, the mobile electronic library can be powered by a generator, or simply "plugged in" at some of the locations where it stops. Edmiston (2004) also points to examples of bookmobiles that have online service in Texas, Missouri, South Carolina, and Indiana.
Individuals were contacted by email. Initially, several members of the Board of Directors of the Association of Rural and Small Libraries (ARSL) were emailed the survey directly. Members of the ARSL were targeted because of the organization's continuing effort to build a support system for those who work for and with rural libraries (Online Computer Library Center, 2008). Patricia Hector, president-elect of the ARSL Board and Assistant System Director of the Mountain Valley Library System in California, generously offered to post the survey questions on the ARSL listserv, and several responses were received in this manner. Susan Hildreth, who at the time was the State Librarian of California, and Carla Lehn, a library programs consultant with the California State Library, were also able to pass along further responses from individuals involved with rural libraries. In the end, 11 people who work for rural libraries or organizations concerned with these institutions responded to the four survey questions listed below:
Question 1: Computer training for library staff and patrons were found to be urgent training needs for rural libraries in a 2004 ALA survey. Have specific programs been developed since then that have attempted to address this issue?
Roxanna Parker, a librarian within the Sutter County Library system in California, replies, "The most limiting factor is that our branches are one-person operations, and the staff are doing everything when the libraries are open - and are not just available for teaching the public" (personal communication, April 23, 2008). Don Reynolds, director of the Nolichucky Regional Library in Morristown, Tennessee, and current president of ARSL, offers, "No. One of the major problems is the training of the individuals serving as the library director in a rural area. Most of them have not attended a graduate school (or undergraduate, for that matter) program" (personal communication, April 30, 2008). While some respondents pointed to specific training programs for rural library staff, including the Rural Library Sustainability Project and California's Rural Initiative, the answers to the computer training question indicate that shortages of funding and staff are common roadblocks to employees receiving and teaching technology literacy skills.
Question 2: In what ways do rural libraries usually collaborate with colleges and universities?
Becky Heil is the ARSL treasurer and director of the Dubuque County Library in Iowa, which serves towns that have populations ranging from 29 to 5,000. She notes that there is a community college in one of the towns, and that her institution has collaborated with the college's library in both programming and collection development areas. Heil also indicates that the college and the Dubuque County Library system plan to operate a "joint county library branch and community college library," which she expects will open by early 2012 (personal communication, April 23, 2008).
Victor Zazueta, director of library services for the Humboldt County Library in California, relates that besides interlibrary loan (ILL) programs, his library has cooperated in program sharing with Humboldt State University. One such program involves training offered by the Western States and Territories Preservation Assistance Service (WESTPAS). Since 2007, WESTPAS has offered "education and training workshops on disaster preparedness, response, and collection salvage," to a number of states and territories (Western States and Territories Preservation Assistance Service, 2008, para. 1).
Diane Adams, director of the International Falls Public Library in Minnesota, notes that her library has teamed up with both a local community college library and the school district, securing a grant to purchase multi-ethnic materials. These materials have been used jointly since.
Question 3: Are any programs for recruiting MLIS graduates to work in rural libraries currently in place?
Both Parker and Zazueta refer to the Public Library Staff Education Program (PLSEP), which is offered by the California State Library. According to Parker, PLSEP helps those already employed by public libraries in the state with MLIS program tuition costs. Parker adds, "The great thing about the CA State Library program is that it is available to individuals already employed by the library, already living in the area, and already liking the area (so they will stay here)" (personal communication, April 23, 2008). Parker and Zazueta both mention that they currently have library staff members receiving assistance from PLSEP. Zazueta indicates that he secured an Edna Yelland Scholarship through the California Library Association while enrolled in a library program at the University of California, Berkeley, in the late 1980s. This scholarship has assisted ethnic minority students who are committed to working with minority groups within the state of California (California Library Association, 2009).
A number of survey respondents pointed to both low wages and rural locations themselves as being major barriers in the recruitment of MLIS program graduates. Heil states, "In Iowa, many, many small, rural library directors make minimum wage so there are very few MLS grads working here" (personal communication, April 23, 2008). Jacque Meriam, director of the Merced County Library in California, begins her response to the recruiting question with, "Have you looked at the pay that rural libraries offer?" (personal communication, April 23, 2008). Mark Arend, Assistant Director of the Winnefox Library System in Wisconsin, suggests that if a rural library director does have a library degree, "it's probably because they either are semi-retired or are living in the area because of a spouse's employment and are unable or unwilling to commute to a community with a larger library" (personal communication, April 23, 2008).
Question 4: Do you feel that the issue of rural library service to populations from varying backgrounds (i.e., Asian, Latino, etc.) is being adequately addressed?
Adams offers: "I am in a very homogenous rural community and do not know if the issue of rural library service to populations from different backgrounds is even being addressed" (personal communication, April 24, 2008). Arend replies: "Maybe. If these services are seen as a priority by the library director, library board or village administration then probably yes. If not then probably not" (personal communication, April 23, 2008). Perhaps referring indirectly to the funding and staffing problems that libraries in remote areas face, Hector says: "I think rural libraries are well aware of the need to provide services to these populations, but I think they could use more help to do it" (personal communication, April 21, 2008). However, Hector does indicate that her library system has been able to purchase Spanish language materials, and has provided literacy services to a local Hmong population.
Heil notes that her state of Iowa has seen a dramatic increase in ethnic minority students who reside in rural areas over the past decade, and that the libraries operating in these areas must begin to respond to this development. Zazueta adds:
The issue of whether adequate services to poorer communities are being addressed or not has to do in most cases with the health of the economy at both the national and state levels, and the political strength of local organizations in getting their voices heard. (personal communication, April 22, 2008)
Many of the responses to this question suggest that rural libraries must focus on simply staying open and functioning at a basic level, and that examining service options for special populations is difficult to do in this context. Still, a number of responses indicate that those working for or with rural libraries are aware of the challenges involved with serving patrons from varying backgrounds, and in some cases the respondents have been actively addressing the issue.
There is little doubt that rural libraries face a number of challenges in their day-to-day existence. Survey respondents frequently point to staff and funding shortages as typical problems for these libraries. These issues are also mentioned in much of the literature reviewed here. Walters and Byers (2007) note that rural libraries have significantly less funding and qualified library staff than libraries in urban areas. However, Hildreth (2007) contradicts these assertions, suggesting, "probably more than ever before, there are dollars, people, and resources being expended in huge numbers on our rural library issues" (p. 10). And sometimes, rural libraries overcome various hardships and provide excellent services. Watkins (2004) offers the example of the Pelican Rapids Public Library in Minnesota. Serving a population of 2,300, of which roughly one-fourth do not speak English as a primary language, the library offers twelve computer workstations, ESL classes, and a number of multi-language materials. Watkins also mentions the Oneonta Public Library in Blount County, Alabama, which counts 5,843 library cardholders among its service population of 6,000.
Rural areas across the U.S. are often at a disadvantage when compared with urban locations. Perhaps not surprisingly, a study by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (n.d.) indicates that a majority of state legislators across the country find that rural issues are addressed considerably less than urban or suburban concerns. A total of 86% of study participants felt there was less opportunity for individuals in rural locales when compared with urban and suburban areas. This does not bode well for rural libraries that seek to recruit qualified staff. Don Reynolds, one of the research study respondents, believes that "most graduate school graduates are not really interested in rural areas (unless they already live there) since the living amenities seem so bleak and the salaries are so dreadfully low" (personal communication, April 30, 2008).
How can rural libraries envision and create a better future for themselves? Hildreth (2007) contends that these institutions need to look at strengths within their staffs, services, and local populations. Hildreth proposes that the rural community, rural human resources (library employees, volunteers, trustees, and supporters), and the buildings that house rural libraries are all important assets that should be utilized in developing quality library service in remote areas. It could also be argued that U.S. rural libraries would most benefit from finding more librarians like Vicki Selander of the Castle Rock Library in Washington, who declares:
In a rural library I get to know most of my patrons. I know their favorite kinds of books so I can inform them when new (or old) books might be appealing. . . . It is this country attitude and small town social style that I value most. This atmosphere makes it a joy to come to work in the library each day. (Wood, 2006, p. 6)
American Library Association Allied Professional Association. (2007). ALA-APA rural library staff salary survey. Retrieved April 26, 2008, from http://www.ala-apa.org/salaries/RuralLibrarySalarySurvey.pdf
Biggs, B. (2001). Library of California Tierra Del Sol region: Tribal library census and needs assessment project final report. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/report.html
Diaz, R. (2005). Developing library outreach programs for migrant farm workers. Florida Libraries, 47(1), 12-14. Retrieved April 29, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Dixon, A.R. (2006). Feasibility and options in bookmobiles and mobile libraries in rural areas: A case study approach using Alaska's experience. Bookmobile and Outreach Services, 9(2), 17-58. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Dorr, J., & Akeroyd, R. (2001). New Mexico tribal libraries: Bridging the digital divide [Electronic version]. Computers in Libraries, 21(8), 36-42. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct01/dorr&akeroyd.htm
Edmiston, S.C. (2004). A look at bookmobile services: Specific groups and outstanding programs. Bookmobile and Outreach Services, 7(1), 37-54. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Fisher, K.E., Marcoux, E., Miller, L.S., Sanchez, A., & Cunningham, E.A. (2004). Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest. Information Research, 10(1), paper 199. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from http://informationr.net/ir/10-1/paper199.html
Gordon, A.C., Dorr J., & Gordon, M. (2003). Native American technology access: The Gates Foundation in Four Corners. The Electronic Library, 21(5), 428-434. Retrieved April 30, 2008, from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/libraries/eval_docs/pdf/NAATP.pdf
Hodge, B., & Tanner, R. (2003). Grassroots to grassfed: Libraries partner with local organizations to address the information needs of farming communities in upstate New York. Reference Librarian, 82, 107-124. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier.
Meadows, J. (2001). United States rural bookmobile service in the year 2000. Bookmobile and Outreach Services, 4(1), 47-63. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Nappo, C.M. (2007). Library services for indigenous populations in the United States and Australia: A cross-cultural comparison. Rural Libraries, 27(1), 31-48. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Nason, L. (2007). The farmer in the library: Information needs of farmers and how the rural public library can fulfill them. Rural Libraries, 27(2), 19-45. Retrieved March 22, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Nicholson, L. (2005). Technology and teens: Helping rural libraries grow. Bookmobile and Outreach Services, 8(2), 21-44. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Prock, A. (2003). Serving the invisible population: Library outreach for migrant farm workers. Bookmobile and Outreach Services, 6(1), 37-51. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Snyder, T.A. (2004). Rural library services to minority populations: Case studies in the United States. Rural Libraries, 24(1), 51-63. Retrieved March 14, 2008, from Library Literature & Information Science Full Text database.
Greg S. Borman is an MLIS candidate in the School of Library and Information Science at San Jose State University. He can be contacted at: email@example.com.
This paper has been peer-reviewed.
Please cite with the following information:
Copyright, 2013 Library Student Journal | Contact